Ahmed RG*Division of Anatomy and Embryology, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt
*Address for Correspondence: Ahmed RG, Division of Anatomy and Embryology, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt, Tel/Fax: 002-010-91471828; Email: email@example.com
Dates: Submitted: 16 December 2017; Approved: 26 December 2017; Published: 27 December 2017
How to cite this article: Ahmed RG. Maternal thyroid dysfunction and neonatal cardiac disorders. Insights Biol Med. 2017; 1: 092-096. DOI: 10.29328/journal.ibm.1001008
Copyright License: © 2017 Ahmed RG. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The normal levels of thyroid hormones (THs; thyroxine, T4 & 3,5,3′-triiodo-L-thyronine, T3) are necessary for the normal development [1-48], particularly the fetal and neonatal cardiac growth and development . The actions of THs are facilitated genomically by thyroid receptors (TRs, α and β) and non-genomically at the plasma membrane, in the cytoplasm and in cellular organelles [4,49-55], by stimulation of Na+, K+, Ca2+ and glucose transport, activation of protein kinase C (PKC), protein kinase A (PKA) and mitogen activated and protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) . In addition, the transport of T4 and T3 in and out of cells is controlled by several classes of transmembrane TH-transporters (THTs) , including members of the organic anion transporter family (OATP), L-type amino acid transporters (LATs), Na+/Taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), and monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) [4,49,57,58]. Adding additional complexity, the metabolism of T4 and T3 is regulated by 3 selenoenzyme iodothyronine deiodinases (Ds: D1, D2 and D3) [59-61]. On the other hand, the congenital hypothyroidism can cause the following [49,62-64], (1) congenital heart diseases; (2) diastolic hypertension; (3) reduced cardiac output, stroke volume and a narrow pulse pressure; (4) dilatation and overt heart failure; (5) elevation in the systemic vascular resistance [65-68]. Similarly, the chronic hyperthyroidism can cause the following [49,64]: (1) cardiac hypertrophy; (2) increase in the cardiomyocyte (CM) length rather than width; (3) noticeable diminution in systemic vascular resistance; (4) elevation in the cardiac contractility; (5) systolic hypertension; (6) increase in the cardiac output, venous volume return, blood volume and pulse pressure; and (7) reduction in the systemic vascular resistance [49,69]. T3-therapy can induce DNA synthesis and cardiomyocyte proliferation, and improve the cardiac contractility; though, this action is as still unidentified [49,70-74].
On the basis of these data, it can be reported that the T3 may stimulate the cardiac contractility and stimulate the hemodynamic changes (blood pressure, blood volume and heart rate) during the prenatal and postnatal periods. Additional studies are necessary to delineate the likely relations with human health. Future examinations are necessary to explore the multidirectional actions of TH-therapy in the maternal and neonatal cardiovascular diseases.
- El-bakry AM, El-Ghareeb AW, Ahmed RG. Comparative study of the effects of experimentally-induced hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in some brain regions in albino rats. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2010; 28: 371-389. Ref.: https://goo.gl/6UK4XT
- Ahmed RG. Perinatal TCDD exposure alters developmental neuroendocrine system. Food Chem Toxicology. 2011; 49: 1276-1284. Ref.: https://goo.gl/U8B5dK
- Ahmed RG. Maternal-newborn thyroid dysfunction. In the Developmental Neuroendocrinology, pp. 1-369. Ed R.G. Ahmed. Germany: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing GmbH & Co KG. 2012.
- Ahmed RG. Maternal-fetal thyroid interactions, Thyroid Hormone, Dr. N.K. Agrawal (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0678-4, In Tech Open Access Publisher, Chapter 5. 2012; 125-156.
- Ahmed RG. Early weaning PCB 95 exposure alters the neonatal endocrine system: thyroid adipokine dysfunction. J Endocrinol. 2013; 219: 205-215. Ref.: https://goo.gl/1A4tfR
- Ahmed RG. Do PCBs modify the thyroid-adipokine axis during development?. Annals Thyroid Res. 2014; 1: 11-12. Ref.: https://goo.gl/qmTkfb
- Ahmed RG. Chapter 1: Hypothyroidism and brain development. In advances in hypothyroidism treatment. Avid Science Borsigstr. 9, 10115 Berlin, Berlin, Germany. Avid Science Publications level 6, Melange Towers, Wing a, Hitec City, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. 2015; 1-40.
- Ahmed RG. Hypothyroidism and brain developmental players. Thyroid Research J. 2015; 8: 1-12. Ref.: https://goo.gl/r9wAcW
- Ahmed RG. Editorials and Commentary: Maternofetal thyroid action and brain development. J of Advances in Biology. 2015; 7: 1207-1213.
- Ahmed RG. Developmental adipokines and maternal obesity interactions. J of Advances in Biology. 2015; 7: 1189-1206.
- Ahmed RG. Maternal bisphenol A alters fetal endocrine system: Thyroid adipokine dysfunction. Food Chem Toxicology. 2016; 95: 168-174. Ref.: https://goo.gl/Kb9Zpv
- Ahmed RG. Gestational dexamethasone alters fetal neuroendocrine axis. Toxicology Letters. 2016; 258: 46-54. Ref.: https://goo.gl/t5nFKs
- Ahmed RG. Maternal iodine deficiency and brain disorders. Endocrinol. Metab. Syndr. 2016; 5: 223.
- Ahmed RG. Neonatal polychlorinated biphenyls-induced endocrine dysfunction. Ann Thyroid Res. 2016; 2: 34-35. Ref.: https://goo.gl/iSJDzP
- Ahmed RG. Developmental thyroid diseases and GABAergic dysfunction. EC Neurology. 2017; 8: 2-4. Ref.: https://goo.gl/A1nmPp
- Ahmed RG. Hyperthyroidism and developmental dysfunction. Arch Med. 2017; 9: 4. Ref.: https://goo.gl/kcSWVK
- Ahmed RG. Anti-thyroid drugs may be at higher risk for perinatal thyroid disease. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2017; 4: 140-142. Ref.: https://goo.gl/xoYft6
- Ahmed RG. Perinatal hypothyroidism and cytoskeleton dysfunction. Endocrinol Metab Syndr. 2017; 6: 271.
- Ahmed RG. Developmental thyroid diseases and monoaminergic dysfunction. Advances in Applied Science Research. 2017; 8; 1-10. Ref.: https://goo.gl/2La731
- Ahmed RG. Hypothyroidism and brain development. J Anim Res Nutr. 2017; 2: 13.
- Ahmed RG. Antiepileptic drugs and developmental neuroendocrine dysfunction: Every why has A Wherefore. Arch Med. 2017; 9: 2. Ref.: https://goo.gl/xsfSk4
- Ahmed RG. Gestational prooxidant-antioxidant imbalance may be at higher risk for postpartum thyroid disease. Endocrinol Metab Syndr. 2017; 6: 279. Ref.: https://goo.gl/vPoiEo
- Ahmed RG. Synergistic actions of thyroid-adipokines axis during development. Endocrinol Metab Syndr. 2017; 6: 280. Ref.: https://goo.gl/YHXnYv
- Ahmed RG. Thyroid-insulin dysfunction during development. International Journal of Research Studies in Zoology. 2017; 3: 73-75. Ref.: https://goo.gl/AXrH7c
- Ahmed RG. Developmental thyroid diseases and cholinergic imbalance. International Journal of Research Studies in Zoology. 2017; 3: 70-72. Ref.: https://goo.gl/bc5xsE
- Ahmed RG. Thyroid diseases and developmental adenosinergic imbalance. Int J Clin Endocrinol. 2017; 1: 053-055.
- Ahmed RG. Maternal anticancer drugs and fetal neuroendocrine dysfunction in experimental animals. Endocrinol Metab Syndr. 2017; 6: 281.
- Ahmed RG. Gestational dexamethasone may be at higher risk for thyroid disease developing peripartum. Open Journal of Biomedical & Life Sciences (Ojbili). 2017; 3: 1-6. Ref.: https://goo.gl/xBLL6B
- Ahmed RG. Deiodinases and developmental hypothyroidism. EC Nutrition. 2017; 11: 183-185.
- Ahmed RG. Maternofetal thyroid hormones and risk of diabetes. Int. J. of Res. Studies in Medical and Health Sciences. 2017; 2: 18-21.
- Ahmed RG. Association between hypothyroidism and renal dysfunctions. Int. J. of Res. Studies in Medical and Health Sciences. 2017; 2: 1-4.
- Ahmed RG. Maternal hypothyroidism and lung dysfunction. Int J of Res. Studies in Medical and Health Sciences (in press). 2017.
- Ahmed OM, El-Gareib AW, El-bakry AM, Abd El-Tawab SM, Ahmed RG. Thyroid hormones states and brain development interactions. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2008; 26: 147-209. Ref.: https://goo.gl/mjvT6f
- Ahmed OM, Abd El-Tawab SM, Ahmed RG. Effects of experimentally induced maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on the development of rat offspring: I- The development of the thyroid hormones-neurotransmitters and adenosinergic system interactions. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2010; 28: 437-454. Ref.: https://goo.gl/Rpj7ZT
- Ahmed OM, Ahmed RG. Hypothyroidism. In A New Look At Hypothyroidism. Dr. D. Springer (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0020-1), In Tech Open Access Publisher. 2012; 1-20.
- Ahmed RG, Incerpi S, Ahmed F, Gaber A. The developmental and physiological interactions between free radicals and antioxidant: Effect of environmental pollutants. J of Natural Sci Res. 2013; 3: 74-110. Ref.: https://goo.gl/v8cpJ4
- Ahmed RG, Davis PJ, Davis FB, De Vito P, Farias RN, et al. Nongenomic actions of thyroid hormones: from basic research to clinical applications. An update. Immunology, Endocrine & Metabolic Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 2013; 13: 46-59. Ref.: https://goo.gl/QbdSdA
- Ahmed RG, El-Gareib AW. Lactating PTU exposure: I- Alters thyroid-neural axis in neonatal cerebellum. Eur J of Biol and Medical Sci Res. 2014; 2; 1-16. Ref.: https://goo.gl/HhpnXZ
- Ahmed RG, Abdel-Latif M, Mahdi E, El-Nesr K. Immune stimulation improves endocrine and neural fetal outcomes in a model of maternofetal thyrotoxicosis. Int Immunopharmacol. 2015; 29: 714-721. Ref.: https://goo.gl/2cBoz4
- Ahmed RG, Abdel-Latif M, Ahmed F. Protective effects of GM-CSF in experimental neonatal hypothyroidism. International Immunopharmacology. 2015; 29: 538-543. Ref.: https://goo.gl/YWLi5W
- Incerpi S, Hsieh MT, Lin HY, Cheng GY, De Vito P, et al. Thyroid hormone inhibition in L6 myoblasts of IGF-I-mediated glucose uptake and proliferation: new roles for integrin αvβ3. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2014; 307: 150-161. Ref.: https://goo.gl/yVw6qM
- Van Herck SLJ, Geysens S, Bald E, Chwatko G, Delezie E, et al. Maternal transfer of methimazole and effects on thyroid hormone availability in embryonic tissues. Endocrinol. 2013; 218: 105-115. Ref.: https://goo.gl/ftwPZe
- Candelotti E, De Vito P, Ahmed RG, Luly P, Davis PJ, et al. Thyroid hormones crosstalk with growth factors: Old facts and new hypotheses. Agents in Med Chem. 2015; 15: 71-85. Ref.: https://goo.gl/oK8EEZ
- Ahmed RG, El-Gareib AW, Incerpi S. Lactating PTU exposure: II- Alters thyroid-axis and prooxidant-antioxidant balance in neonatal cerebellum. Int Res J of Natural Sciences. 2014; 2: 1-20.
- De Vito P, Candelotti E, Ahmed RG, Luly P, Davis PJ, et al. Role of thyroid hormones in insulin resistance and diabetes. Immun Endoc & Metab Agents in Med Chem. 2015; 15: 86-93.
- El-Ghareeb AA, El-Bakry AM, Ahmed RG, Gaber A. Effects of zinc supplementation in neonatal hypothyroidism and cerebellar distortion induced by maternal carbimazole. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences. 2016; 4: 1030-1040.
- Ahmed RG, El-Gareib AW. Maternal carbamazepine alters fetal neuroendocrine-cytokines axis. Toxicology. 2017; 382: 59-66. Ref.: https://goo.gl/x3otPF
- Gigena N, Alamino VA, Montesinos MM, Nazar M, Louzada RA, et al. Dissecting thyroid hormone transport and metabolism in dendritic cells. J Endocrinology. 2017; 232: 337-350. Ref.: https://goo.gl/GH8ciU
- Li M, Iismaa SE, Naqvi N, Nicks A, Husain A, et al. Thyroid hormone action in postnatal heart development. Stem Cell Res. 2014; 13: 582-591. Ref.: https://goo.gl/7TDRLa
- Davis PJ, Davis FB. Nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone on the heart. Thyroid. 2002; 12: 459-466. Ref.: https://goo.gl/fzHFo1
- Mai W, Janier MF, Allioli N, Quignodon L, Chuzel T, et al. Thyroid hormone receptor alpha is a molecular switch of cardiac function between fetal and postnatal life. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004; 101: 10332-10337. Ref.: https://goo.gl/YWwCgT
- Incerpi S. Thyroid hormones: rapid reply by surface delivery only. Endocrinol. 2005; 146: 2861-2863. Ref.: https://goo.gl/kzk3gw
- Incerpi S. Nongenomic effects of thyroid hormones in skeletal muscle and central nervous system: from zebrafish to man. Immun Endocr Metab Agents Med Chem. 2011; 11: 150-151.
- Davis PJ, Lin HY, Mousa SA, Luidens MK, Hercbergs AA, et al. Overlapping nongenomic and genomic actions of thyroid hormone and steroids. Steroids. 2011; 76: 829-833. Ref.: https://goo.gl/xhYDxX
- De Vito P, Incerpi S, Pedersen JZ, Luly P, Davis FB, et al. Thyroid hormones as modulators of immune activities at the cellular level. Thyroid. 2011; 21: 879-890. Ref.: https://goo.gl/f2DzC7
- Incerpi S, De Vito P, Luly P, Spagnuolo S, Leoni S. Short-term effects of thyroid hormones and 3,5-diiodothyronine on membrane transport systems in chick embryo hepatocytes. Endocrinol. 2002; 143: 1660-1668. Ref.: https://goo.gl/nsybXu
- Suzuki T, Abe T. Thyroid hormone transporters in the brain. Cerebellum. 2008; 75-83. Ref.: https://goo.gl/RdPN7X
- Visser WE, Friesema EC, Jansen J, Visser TJ. Thyroid hormone transport in and out of cells. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2008; 19: 50-56. Ref.: https://goo.gl/GEjKt9
- Zoeller RT, Tan SW, Tyl RW. General background on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2007; 37: 11-53. Ref.: https://goo.gl/nzGzdR
- Kress E, Samarut J, Plateroti M. Thyroid hormones and the control of cell proliferation or cell differentiation: paradox or duality? Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 2009; 313: 36-49.
- Brent GA. Mechanisms of thyroid hormone action. J Clin Invest. 2012; 122: 9035-9043.
- Legrand J. Thyroid hormone effects on growth and development. In: Henneman, G. (Ed.), Thyroid Hormone Metabolism. Marcel Dekker, Rotterdam. The Netherlands. 1986.
- Olivieri A, Stazi MA, Mastroiacovo P, Fazzini C, Medda E, et al. A population-based study on the frequency of additional congenital malformations in infants with congenital hypothyroidism: data from the Italian Registry for Congenital Hypothyroidism (1991-1998). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002; 87: 557-562. Ref.: https://goo.gl/UjYWd8
- Maillet M, Van Berlo JH, Molkentin JD. Molecular basis of physiological heart growth: fundamental concepts and new players. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2013; 14: 38-48. Ref.: https://goo.gl/cgH6tR
- Bengel FM, Lehnert J, Ibrahim T, Klein C, Bulow HP, et al. Cardiac oxidative metabolism, function, and metabolic performance in mild hyperthyroidism: a noninvasive study using positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Thyroid. 2003; 13: 471-477. Ref.: https://goo.gl/pVJqqd
- Danzi S, Klein I. Thyroid hormone and blood pressure regulation. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2003; 5: 513-520. Ref.: https://goo.gl/Cs3tiq
- Biondi B, Palmieri EA, Lombardi G, Fazio S. Effects of thyroid hormone on cardiac function: the relative importance of heart rate, loading conditions, and myocardial contractility in the regulation of cardiac performance in human hyperthyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002; 87: 968-974. Ref.: https://goo.gl/1N61vi
- Kiss E, Jakab G, Kranias EG, Edes I. Thyroid hormone induced alterations in phospholamban protein expression. Regulatory effects on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ transport and myocardial relaxation. Circ Res. 1994; 75: 245-251. Ref.: https://goo.gl/1Gmj9E
- Klein I, Ojamaa K. Thyroid hormone and the cardiovascular system. N Engl J Med. 2001; 344: 501-509. Ref.: https://goo.gl/p7tTLr
- Ledda-Columbano GM, Molotzu F, Pibiri M, Cossu C, Perra A, et al. Thyroid hormone induces cyclin D1 nuclear translocation and DNA synthesis in adult rat cardiomyocytes. FASEB J. 2006; 20: 87-94. Ref.: https://goo.gl/uVfCBC
- Janssen R, Zuidwijk M, Muller A, Mulders J, Oudejans CB, et al. Cardiac expression of deiodinase type 3 (Dio3) following myocardial infarction is associated with the induction of a pluripotency microRNA signature from the Dlk1-Dio3 genomic region. Endocrinology. 2013; 154: 1973-1978. Ref.: https://goo.gl/bD8tE1
- Naqvi N, Li M, Calvert JW, Tejada T, Lambert JP, et al. A proliferative burst during preadolescence establishes the final cardiomyocyte number. Cell. 2014; 157: 795-807. Ref.: https://goo.gl/HkD6Yd
- Ahmed OM, Ahmed RG, El-Gareib AW, El-Bakry AM, Abd El-Tawaba SM. Effects of experimentally induced maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on the development of rat offspring: II-The developmental pattern of neurons in relation to oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2012; 30: 517-537. Ref.: https://goo.gl/j34VBN
- Ahmed RG, Incerpi S. Gestational doxorubicin alters fetal thyroid–brain axis. Int J Devl Neuroscience. 2013; 31: 96-104. Ref.: https://goo.gl/2jeKKj