Abstract

Review Article

Contemporary American stupidity

James F Welles*

Published: 2020-05-18 00:00:00 | Volume 4 - Issue 1 | Pages: 009-022

The American character is filled with contradictions and paradoxes [1], so it is understandable that, being susceptible to the imperfections, weakness and evils afflicting all peoples [2], it features its share and many types of injustices and stupidity.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ibm.1001017 Cite this Article Read Full Article Pdf

Similar articles

Endothelial Repair and Endothelial Cell-Derived Secretome

Published on: 9th January, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317594407

Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that endothelial cell-derived microparticles (MPs) might contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Endothelial cell-derived MPs play a pivotal role in the regulation of the endogenous repair system, thrombosis, coagulation, inflammation, immunity and metabolic memory phenomenon. There is evidence that the MPs are secreted actively accompanied to other regulatory molecules. All these actively synthetizing and secreting factors include proteins, adhesion and intercellular signal molecules, peptides, lipids, free DNAs, microRNAs, and even microparticles (MPs) are defined as cellular secretome. The proteomic profile of secretome is under tightly control of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, which may altered a secretion of the proteins involved into MPs’ organization. Finally, this may contribute the modification of MP’s after their secretion and throughout transfer to the target cells. As a result, communicative ability of endothelial cell-derived MPs may sufficiently worse. Subsequently, cross talk between some components of secretome might modulate delivering cargos of MPs and their regenerative and proliferative capabilities via intercellular signaling networks. The aim of the review is to discuss the effect of various components of secretome on MP-dependent effects on endothelium.
Cite this ArticleCrossMarkPublonsHarvard Library HOLLISGrowKudosResearchGateBase SearchOAI PMHAcademic MicrosoftScilitSemantic ScholarUniversite de ParisUW LibrariesSJSU King LibrarySJSU King LibraryNUS LibraryMcGillDET KGL BIBLiOTEKJCU DiscoveryUniversidad De LimaWorldCatVU on WorldCat

Ethical Dimensions of Population Genetic Research in the Caucasus

Published on: 20th January, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317652374

The emergence and establishment of anthropological genetics as an interdisciplinary science is primarily, associated with the development of new genomic technologies. Precision genetic testing on the one hand, and the rapidly increasing number of genetic investigations on the other, have created a set of bioethical dilemmas for genetic and epidemiology research. Such research deals with persons who have the right to the protection of their personal information and confidentiality, and also concerns collective (village, region, ethnic group, state) consciousness, ethnic identity, and traditional culture, i.e., so called “ethnic pride”. In this regard, taking into consideration the results of ongoing field research, we make some recommendations for better management of relationships with individuals and communities and the preparation of questionnaires and informed consent forms that will facilitate similar research projects, especially in such an ethnically, linguistically and culturally diverse region such as the Caucasus.
Cite this ArticleCrossMarkPublonsHarvard Library HOLLISGrowKudosResearchGateBase SearchOAI PMHAcademic MicrosoftScilitSemantic ScholarUniversite de ParisUW LibrariesSJSU King LibrarySJSU King LibraryNUS LibraryMcGillDET KGL BIBLiOTEKJCU DiscoveryUniversidad De LimaWorldCatVU on WorldCat

Fungi present in home and their impact on human health-A short review

Published on: 6th June, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317650901

It is estimated that even up to 30% of buildings worldwide may be the subject of complaints connected with the quality of indoor air. Potential sources of air pollution can be both organic and inorganic particles. This article focuses on biological air pollutants from living and dead biological sources, especially those connected with fungi. Fungi found in the indoor air of domestic dwellings in a large extent are similar in their species composition to those found on the outside of the building. Microorganisms enters into the buildings during the airing of rooms or through the different slots and can develop on the surfaces of various materials. Intensively develops in a poorly ventilated, damp and dusty environments. For this reason the exposure to the indoor air pollution might be stranger for inhabitants than the expose to the impurities of the outdoor air. Presence of fungi in domestic dwellings can be very danger because of most often is associated with allergic reactions, mycotoxins, volatile organic compounds or even with fungal infections.
Cite this ArticleCrossMarkPublonsHarvard Library HOLLISGrowKudosResearchGateBase SearchOAI PMHAcademic MicrosoftScilitSemantic ScholarUniversite de ParisUW LibrariesSJSU King LibrarySJSU King LibraryNUS LibraryMcGillDET KGL BIBLiOTEKJCU DiscoveryUniversidad De LimaWorldCatVU on WorldCat

Transglutaminase inhibition: possible therapeutic mechanisms to protect cells from death in neurological disorders

Published on: 25th July, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317595344

Transglutaminases are a family of Ca2+-dependent enzymes which catalyze post-translational modifications of proteins. The main activity of these enzymes is the cross-linking of glutaminyl residues of a protein/peptide substrate to lysyl residues of a protein/peptide co-substrate. In addition to lysyl residues, other second nucleophilic co-substrates may include monoamines or polyamines (to form mono-or bi-substituted/crosslinked adducts) or -OH groups (to form ester linkages). In absence of co-substrates, the nucleophile may be water, resulting in the net deamidation of the glutaminyl residue. Transglutaminase activity has been suggested to be involved in molecular mechanisms responsible for both physiological and pathological processes. In particular, transglutaminase activity has been shown to be responsible for human autoimmune diseases, and Celiac Disease is just one of them. Interestingly, neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, supranuclear palsy, Huntington’s disease and other polyglutamine diseases, are characterized in part by aberrant cerebral transglutaminase activity and by increased cross-linked proteins in affected brains. Here we describe the possible molecular mechanisms by which these enzymes could be responsible for such diseases and the possible use of transglutaminase inhibitors for patients with diseases characterized by aberrant transglutaminase activity.
Cite this ArticleCrossMarkPublonsHarvard Library HOLLISGrowKudosResearchGateBase SearchOAI PMHAcademic MicrosoftScilitSemantic ScholarUniversite de ParisUW LibrariesSJSU King LibrarySJSU King LibraryNUS LibraryMcGillDET KGL BIBLiOTEKJCU DiscoveryUniversidad De LimaWorldCatVU on WorldCat

Surface Plasmon Resonance technology to assess biological interactions

Published on: 25th August, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317592002

Molecular interactions between proteins or between proteins and small molecules are pivotal events for selective binding of biological structures and, consequentially, for their correct function. In this scenario, the evaluation of kinetic parameters, characterizing a molecular interactions, is considered a crucial event to reveal the nature of binding processes. The focus on peculiar forces involved in the molecular recognition represents an opportunity to explore biological interactions in real time, and to develop a number of innovative biotechnological methods for diagnosis and/or therapy. Currently, optical biosensors, offering an increasingly effective technology to detect in real time molecular binding, are usually composed by a detector, a sensor surface and a sample delivery system: only definite substances, which are able to interact specifically with the biological part, lead to an optical or electrical signal of the physical transducer. In this review we want to highlight the exponentially-growing interest of Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) based optical biosensors for molecular binding analysis in different research fields.
Cite this ArticleCrossMarkPublonsHarvard Library HOLLISGrowKudosResearchGateBase SearchOAI PMHAcademic MicrosoftScilitSemantic ScholarUniversite de ParisUW LibrariesSJSU King LibrarySJSU King LibraryNUS LibraryMcGillDET KGL BIBLiOTEKJCU DiscoveryUniversidad De LimaWorldCatVU on WorldCat

Use of MicroRNAs to Screen for Colon Cancer

Published on: 31st August, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317598451

Colon cancer (CC) screening is important for diagnosing early stage for malignancy and therefore potentially reduces mortality from this disease because the cancer could be cured at the early disease stage. Early detection is needed if accurate and cost effective diagnostic methods are available. Mortality from colon cancer is theoretically preventable through screening. The Current screening method, the immunological fecal occult blood test, FOBTi, lacks sensitivity and requires dietary restriction, which impedes compliance. Moreover colonoscopy is invasive and costly, which decreases compliance, and in certain cases could lead to mortality. Compared to the FOBT test, a noninvasive sensitive screen that does not require dietary restriction would be more convenient. Colonoscopy screening is recommended for colorectal cancer (CRC). Although it is a reliable screening method, colonoscopy is an invasive test, often accompanied by abdominal pain, has potential complications and has high cost, which have hampered its application worldwide. A screening approach that uses the relatively stable and nondegradable microRNA molecules when extracted from either the noninvasive human stool, or the semi-invasive blood samples by available commercial kits and manipulated thereafter, would be more preferable than a transcriptomic messenger (m)RNA-, a mutation DNA-, an epigenetic-or a proteomic-based test. That approach utilizes reverse transcriptase (RT), followed by a modified quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). To compensate for exosomal miRNAs that would not be measured, a parallel test could be performed on stool or plasma’s total RNAs, and corrections for exosomal loss are made to obtain accurate results. Ultimately, a chip would be developed to facilitate diagnosis, as has been carried out for the quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in foods. The gold standard to which the miRNA test is compared to is colonoscopy. If laboratory performance criteria are met, a miRNA test in human stool or blood samples based on high throughput automated technologies and quantitative expression measurements currently employed in the diagnostic clinical laboratory, would eventually be advanced to the clinical setting, making a noticeable impact on the prevention of colon cancer.
Cite this ArticleCrossMarkPublonsHarvard Library HOLLISGrowKudosResearchGateBase SearchOAI PMHAcademic MicrosoftScilitSemantic ScholarUniversite de ParisUW LibrariesSJSU King LibrarySJSU King LibraryNUS LibraryMcGillDET KGL BIBLiOTEKJCU DiscoveryUniversidad De LimaWorldCatVU on WorldCat

The master regulator gene PRDM2 controls C2C12 myoblasts proliferation and Differentiation switch and PRDM4 and PRDM10 expression

Published on: 25th September, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317606260

The Positive Regulatory Domain (PRDM) protein family gene is involved in a spectrum variety of biological processes, including proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis: its member seem to be transcriptional regulators highly cell type and tissue peculiar, towards histones modifications or recruitment of specific interaction patters to modify the expression of target genes. In this study we analyzed the expression profile of different member of PRDM gene family focusing our attention on the role of PRDM2, PRDM4 and PRDM10 genes in mouse C2C12 cell line, during the differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes and speculate about the role of the protein Retinoblastoma protein-interacting zinc finger protein 1-RIZ1, coded by PRDM2 gene, as a regulator of the proliferation/differentiation switch. Results showed a reduction of PRDM2, PRDM4 and PRDM10 expression level during the commitment of the differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes. The RIZ1 silencing stimulated myoblasts differentiation, similar to the effect of serum deprivation on these cells, associated with an increase of Myogenin expression level, which is considered to be involved in the differentiation of myoblasts into multinucleated myotubes. As demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, RIZ1 is associated with Myogenin promoter in proliferation condition and after 24h from differentiation induction, negatively controlling therefore Myogenin expression. Moreover RIZ1 silencing induced a reduction in PRDM4 and PRDM10 expression levels leaving us to speculate that the PRDM genes have a redundant role and they are hierarchically organized.
Cite this ArticleCrossMarkPublonsHarvard Library HOLLISGrowKudosResearchGateBase SearchOAI PMHAcademic MicrosoftScilitSemantic ScholarUniversite de ParisUW LibrariesSJSU King LibrarySJSU King LibraryNUS LibraryMcGillDET KGL BIBLiOTEKJCU DiscoveryUniversidad De LimaWorldCatVU on WorldCat

Maternal thyroid dysfunction and neonatal cardiac disorders

Published on: 27th December, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7355941189

The normal levels of thyroid hormones (THs; thyroxine, T4 & 3,5,3′-triiodo-L-thyronine, T3) are necessary for the normal development [1-48], particularly the fetal and neonatal cardiac growth and development [49]. The actions of THs are facilitated genomically by thyroid receptors (TRs, α and β) and non-genomically at the plasma membrane, in the cytoplasm and in cellular organelles [4,49-55], by stimulation of Na+, K+, Ca2+ and glucose transport, activation of protein kinase C (PKC), protein kinase A (PKA) and mitogen activated and protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) [4]. In addition, the transport of T4 and T3 in and out of cells is controlled by several classes of transmembrane TH-transporters (THTs) [56], including members of the organic anion transporter family (OATP), L-type amino acid transporters (LATs), Na+/Taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), and monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) [4,49,57,58]. Adding additional complexity, the metabolism of T4 and T3 is regulated by 3 selenoenzyme iodothyronine deiodinases (Ds: D1, D2 and D3) [59-61]. On the other hand, the congenital hypothyroidism can cause the following [49,62-64], (1) congenital heart diseases; (2) diastolic hypertension; (3) reduced cardiac output, stroke volume and a narrow pulse pressure; (4) dilatation and overt heart failure; (5) elevation in the systemic vascular resistance [65-68]. Similarly, the chronic hyperthyroidism can cause the following [49,64]: (1) cardiac hypertrophy; (2) increase in the cardiomyocyte (CM) length rather than width; (3) noticeable diminution in systemic vascular resistance; (4) elevation in the cardiac contractility; (5) systolic hypertension; (6) increase in the cardiac output, venous volume return, blood volume and pulse pressure; and (7) reduction in the systemic vascular resistance [49,69]. T3-therapy can induce DNA synthesis and cardiomyocyte proliferation, and improve the cardiac contractility; though, this action is as still unidentified [49,70-74].
Cite this ArticleCrossMarkPublonsHarvard Library HOLLISGrowKudosResearchGateBase SearchOAI PMHAcademic MicrosoftScilitSemantic ScholarUniversite de ParisUW LibrariesSJSU King LibrarySJSU King LibraryNUS LibraryMcGillDET KGL BIBLiOTEKJCU DiscoveryUniversidad De LimaWorldCatVU on WorldCat

What can Mathematics say about unsolved problems in Medicine?

Published on: 3rd January, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7355939664

Nobody doubts that mathematics plays a crucial role in medical achievements. It is certain that is being mainly used in statistics and physics for biomedical problems [1]. For sure that we have already heard about how mathematics can improve the anticancer arsenal [2]. Quantitative genetics have triggered a giant potential in medical care [3,4]. And mathematical algorithms, provided by artificial intelligence, continuously boost new therapeutic paradigms [5,6]. Nonetheless, one cannot ignore the ability of mathematics for analyzing ideas.
Cite this ArticleCrossMarkPublonsHarvard Library HOLLISGrowKudosResearchGateBase SearchOAI PMHAcademic MicrosoftScilitSemantic ScholarUniversite de ParisUW LibrariesSJSU King LibrarySJSU King LibraryNUS LibraryMcGillDET KGL BIBLiOTEKJCU DiscoveryUniversidad De LimaWorldCatVU on WorldCat

Erectile Dysfunction and Coronary Artery Disease: Two manifestations, one same underlying mechanism

Published on: 12th January, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7355939765

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common disorder whose prevalence increases with age. Over time a strong correlation between erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular disease has been established as the result of the same pathophysiological process: endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Because small vessels of the penis can be affected by atherosclerotic plaque earlier than coronary arteries, carotids or femoral arteries, men often have symptoms of ED long before the signs of cardiovascular disease appear. For this reason, ED can act as a marker of early atherosclerosis that predicts the onset of cardiovascular disease at a later time.
Cite this ArticleCrossMarkPublonsHarvard Library HOLLISGrowKudosResearchGateBase SearchOAI PMHAcademic MicrosoftScilitSemantic ScholarUniversite de ParisUW LibrariesSJSU King LibrarySJSU King LibraryNUS LibraryMcGillDET KGL BIBLiOTEKJCU DiscoveryUniversidad De LimaWorldCatVU on WorldCat

References

  1. Schlesinger Jr. A. The Cycles of American History. Houghton Mifflin; Boston, MA. 51. 1986.
  2. Ibid. 53.
  3. Roosevelt BJ. The Soldier of Freedom. Harcourt, Brace, Janonovich; New York. 1970. 216. Phillips, C. 1975. The 1940s: Decade of Triumph and Trouble. Macmillan; New York. 110. King, C. Gods of the Upper Air. Doubleday; New York. 2019. 322-325..
  4. Irons P. Justice at War. Oxford; New York. 1983. 59. A thought echoed by Walter Lippman. The Fifth Column on the Coast. Washington Post. 1942; 9.
  5. O’Reilly B, Dugard M. Killing the Rising Sun. Henry Holt; New York. 2016. 62fn. The worst decision was Dred Scott (1857)–that blacks are not citizens, and the second worst was Plessey vs. Ferguson (1896)–separate can be equal –as if the act of separation was of no significance.
  6. Goodwin D. No Ordinary Time. Simon & Schuster; New York. 1994. 296. Stop a moment and break that down in your mind. They were not looking for proof of criminal activity. Nor were they looking for a suggestion of criminal activity. They were looking for anything the might suggest criminal activity.
  7. Stone O, Kuznick P. The Untold History of the United States. Gallery Books; New York. 2012; 152.
  8. Stone G. Perilous Times. Norton; New York. 2014; 296.
  9. Breye, S. (Supreme Court Justice) The Court and the World. Vintage Books; New York. 2016. 18. Lincoln and FDR both chose the Union/country over the Constitution and so, probably, will any president given that choice.
  10. Schlesinger Jr. A. The Imperial Presidency. Houghton Mifflin; Boston, MA. 116.1973.
  11. Turley J. The Reason We’re No Longer the Land of the Free. Washington Post. 2012.
  12. Murphy F Jus. Concurring opinion in Hirabayashi v. United States. 1943.
  13. Murphy originally wrote his opinion as a dissent but was persuaded by Justice Frankfurter to cast it as a concurring opinion. Fairly put, it is a negative concurrence.
  14. Black Jus H. Korematsu v. United States. 323 US2 14, 233. The explanation that the internees were taken into custody for protection from their neighbors and fellow citizens is too intellectually insulting to be considered. 1944.
  15. Lloyd A, Cantril H. The Political Beliefs of Americans. New Brunswick, NJ. 1967. 33.
  16. Bitsoli S. Memo to the New Court: Let’s Avoid ‘Stupid’ Law. TCR In Depth. 2018.
  17. Bidinotto R. Crime and Consequences. Foundation for Economic Education; Irvington-on-Hudson, NY. 1989.
  18. McWilliams P. Ain’t Nobody’s Business If You Do. Prelude Press; Los Angeles, CA. 1993; 227.
  19. Mann C. 1493. Vintage Books; New York. 172. 2012.
  20. Ferguson N. The Ascent of Money. Penguin Press; New York. 29. 2008.
  21. Hammond P. An Introduction to Cultural and Social Anthropology. 2nd ed. Macmillan; New York. 170. 1978.
  22. The New York Times. Nov. 4, 2007. Playing Games with Toy Safety.
  23. Meehan J. America's Bumbling Bankers: Ripe for a New Fiasco. Business Week; 86-87. Psychologically, this was rather “interesting” in that $1 trillion which bankers thought existed did not. (Sass. 366.) Sharing the misery, the global stock market lost $30 trillion–that is $30,000, 000, 000,000. (Ibid. 367.) It appears that Americans are addicted to dollars that do not exist. (Ibid. 381.) For anyone who wonders what is gong to happen, the answer is, the dollar will become worthless. Anyone who can corner the market on “0's” will clean up. ( 23. Hammond. op. cit.1992
  24. Kilborn P. "Race Norming" tests become a fiery issue. The New York Times; The Week in Review. 5. 1991.
  25. op. cit. 193.
  26. Raspberry W. The Washington Post. 1984.
  27. Harrison H. “The Negro Conservative: Christianity Still Enslaves the Minds of Those Whose Bodies It Has Long Held Bound”. 1914. Quoted on page 438 of Hecht, J. Doubt: A History. HarperOne; New York. 2003.
  28. op. cit. 342.
  29. Johnson G. “The Suppliant” Quoted on page 294 of Hecht. op. cit.
  30. Walker P. Charity begins at home. In Duncan, R. and Weston-Smith, M. (eds.) The Encyclopedia of Delusions. Wallaby; New York. 1979; 226.
  31. Steele S. The Content of Our Character. HarperCollins; New York. 1990. Chap. 7. Lester, R. Antibias Regulation of Universities. McGraw-Hill; New York. 1974. 66. Levin, M. Men in Black: How the Supreme Court is Destroying America. Regnery; Washington, D.C. Chap 6. 2005
  32. Kennedy A Jus. Fisher vs. University of Texas. 2016.
  33. Brown Justice H. Plessy v. Ferguson. 163 U.S. 537. 1896.
  34. Griggs v. Duke Power. 1971. United Steelworkers v. Weber. 1979. Fullilove v. Klutznick. 1980. Hayward, S. 2009. The Age of Reagan: The Conservative Counter-revolution. Crown; New York. 361.
  35. Kennedy, Pres. J. Mar. 1961. Executive Order 10925. Johnson, Pres. L. Sept. 1965. Executive Order 11246.
  36. Bradley, Jus. J. Oct. 15, 1883. United States v. Singleton. 109 U.S. 3.
  37. Toobin J. The Nine. Doubleday; NY. 210-211. 2007.
  38. Ramirez B. Berry M. Quoted on page 63 of Toward an Understanding of Stotts. U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. Clearinghouse Publications 85. 1985.
  39. Hayward S. The Age of Reagan: The Fall of the Old Liberal Order. Three Rivers Press; New York. 354. 2001.
  40. McGovern G. Cited in Radosh R. Divided They Fall: The Demise of the Democratic Party, 1964-1996. The Free Press; New York. 121. 1996.
  41. Reynolds W. Cited on page 223 of Hayward, S. 2009. op. cit. 1970.
  42. Thomas J. The New Outcast? Sun-Sentinel. Fort Lauderdale, FL. 1994.
  43. Roberts J. Chief Justice. Statement at the Supreme Court. 2007.
  44. Breyer S Justice. Statement at the Supreme Court. 2007.
  45. Evans-Pritchard A. The Secret Life of Bill Clinton: The Unreported Stories. Regnery; Washington, DC. 336. 1997.
  46. Quotation from the Christian Union. 1875. 442.
  47. Purcell H. The fallacy of environmentalism. In Duncan and Weston-Smith. op. cit. 92.
  48. Newsweek; CXI, #26, 48-55. Taking Offense. 1990.
  49. Pitkin W. A Short Introduction to the History of Human Stupidity. Simon and Schuster; New York. 516. 1932.
  50. Nourse V. In Reckless Hands. Norton; NY. 2008.
  51. Schlesinger Jr. A. Robert Kennedy and His Times. Houghton Mifflin; Boston, MA. 451. 1978.
  52. President J. Commencement address at Notre Dame University. 1977.
  53. Schlesinger Jr. A. The Cycles of American History. Houghton Mifflin; Boston, MA. 55. As bad as we were in misperceiving the USSR, leaders in the Kremlin were even worse in misjudging us as descendants of original sinners who divided Eden into plots of private property. Both sides need programs of cultural exchange and students of history so that dynamics might carry them beyond their set-piece beliefs toward understanding. 1986.
  54. Stern S. Remembering Pinochet’s Chile. 2006. Duke University Press; Durham, NC. 22. In addition, U.S. supported operatives in South America put the worst totalitarian regimes to shame with their kidnaping, torturing and murdering of political (i.e., leftist) opponents. (Hancock. 316.) 2006.
  55. Olds R. Undersecretary of State. Quoted on p. 327 of Hancock, L. Shadow Warfare. Counterpoint; Berkeley, CA. 2014. 1927.
  56. Hayter W. In The Cold War edited by E. Luard. London. 1964.
  57. Hayward S. op. cit. 284. The lesson learned re: Munich was remisapplied by 43 when rationalizing the totally unjustified invasion of Iraq in 2003–to eliminate the alleged threat Saddam Hussein did not pose to the USA. (Eichenwald. 497.)
  58. Clarke R. Your Government Failed You. HarperCollins; New York. 2008; 142.
  59. op. cit. 8.
  60. op. cit. 426.
  61. Woods T. 33 Questions About American History. Three Rivers Press; New York. Question 29. 2007.
  62. Bamford J. A Pretext for War. Anchor; New York. 138-139; 407. Bodansky, Y. 2004. The Secret History of the Iraq War. Regan Books; New York. 2004; 35: 275-276.
  63. Engel J. George H. W. Bush in The Presidents by B. Lamb, S. Swain, and C-Span. Public Affairs; New York. 2019. p. 244. The fall of the wall was an incredible error. An East-German spokesman read the wrong announcement on TV, giving people the impression they could cross over to the West. The guards at the wall decided not to mow down their compatriots, so the wall came down.
  64. Scahill, J. Dirty Wars. Nation Books; New York. 193. 2013.
  65. The New York Times (Large Type Weekly). Sept. 24, 1984. 13. Margasak, L. Feb. 22, 2000. Pentagon can’t shake its wasteful spending. Associated Press. (Specifically, Sun-Sentinel. Ft. Lauderdale, FL. 4A.)
  66. Speakes L. Speaking Out. Scribner’s; NY. 79. 1988.
  67. Johnson H. Sleepwalking Through History. Anchor; NY. 1991; 177-178.
  68. Fairhill J. “The Case for the $435 Hammer”. Washington Monthly. 1987; 47-52.
  69. Allen V. Pentagon Wasted $100 Million on Unused Air Tickets. Reuters. America On Line. 2004.
  70. Kelley M. GAO details billions in Navy excess. USA TODAY. 7A. 2008.
  71. Ali I. 2:05 PM. Pentagon spends $43 million to build Afghanistan gas station. Reuters. America On Line. 2015.
  72. Hayward S. op. cit. 340. (Close paraphrase.)
  73. Merkon J. A $16 Muffin? Washington Post/ AOL. 20110
  74. Lardner R AP. Major problems found in Iraq, Afghan war spending. America On Line; Money and Finance. 2009.
  75. Schmitt E, Thompson G. $6 Billion in Contracts Reviewed, Pentagon Says. The New York Times. 2007.
  76. Hastings D. Americans Who Report Iraq Corruption Pay a Price. International Herald Tribune. 2007.
  77. Kelley M. USA Today. Largest Iraq Contract Rife with Errors. 2007.
  78. Burger T. Zagorin A. Beyond the Call of Duty. Time. 2018; 2004.
  79. Gross J. Navy Is Urged to Root Out Lesbians Despite Abilities. The New York Times. 24. 1990.
  80. Schmitt E. Military's Anti-Gay Rule Is Costly, a Report Says. The New York Times. 6. For those who care, the Bible is explicitly anti-gay. Leviticus: 18, 22. (620-332 B.C. A prolonged gestation.) 1992.
  81. Read R. Is there still a role for the state? (Mr. Read was running for European Parliament, and his comment had global implications.)
  82. op cit. 2008; 512.
  83. op. cit. 141.
  84. Brown L. "State of the World" (World watch's 11th annual report). Quoted in "World may be at biological limit as growth in food supplies slows". Associated Press. (Sun-Sentinel. Fort Lauderdale, FL..) 1994; 10.
  85. op. cit. 52.
  86. Erlich P. The Population Bomb. Ballantine; New York. Chap. 1. Pimental, D. May, 1994. Natural resources and an optimum human population. Population and Environment. 1968.
  87. Tomlin E. Novelty is the chief aim in art. In Duncan and M. WestonSmith. op. cit. 236. Of course, novelty is one possible aim in art. There are others. 1979.
  88. Russell G. The Lydian Chromatic Concept of tonal Organization for Improvisation. 27. 1959.
  89. Lukach J. Hilla Rebay: In Search of the Sprit in Art. George Braziller; New York. p. 144. (As an absolute aside, the first of the “Non-objectors” reveled in Platonic forms–circles and triangles–as cultural ideals.) 1984.
  90. Taylor J. Paved With Good Intentions. Carroll & Graf; New York. 1992.
  91. Ribadeneira D, Tye L. Racial Gap Widens in Boston Schools. Boston Globe. 1992.
  92. Lindsey R. School Integration Looks More Than Ever Like a Lost Horizon. The New York Times. 1980.
  93. Bovard J. Lost Rights. St. Martin’s Press; New York. 133. 1994.
  94. op. cit. 95.
  95. Gitlin T. The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage. Bantam; New York. 431. 1987.
  96. Reeves R. Black Americans real foreigners because of school dropouts. Universal Press; Kansas City, MO. (Specifically, this syndicated article appeared on this date in the Sun-Sentinel, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. 14A.) 1984.
  97. op. cit. 227.
  98.  
  99. Rangel C. Quoted in "A summary of views as summit begins". USA Today. Jan. 6, 1994. 6A.
  100. op. cit. 228.
  101. Scruton R. Fools, Frauds and Firebrands. Bloomsbury; New York. 2015. 221.
  102. XCV, #7, 104. Tests: How Good? How Fair? Feb. 18, 1980.
  103. Ornstein R. The split and the whole brain. Human Nature; 1, 76-83. As neurologist Winston S. Churchill noted, the problem is that the human brain has two hemispheres, only one of which does any work (Churchill. 1930. 331.)–and that leads to crass stupidity. If we could but cultivate our right hemisphere, we would have twice as much stupidity interrelated in artistic ratios. 1978.
  104. Jacoby S. 2008/2018. The Age of American Unreason. Pantheon; New York. 30.
  105. Kissinger H. The White House Years. Little, Brown; Boston, MA. 1979.
  106. Houghton D. The role of analogical reasoning in novel foreign policy situations. British Journal of Political Science. 1996; 26: 523-552.
  107. op. cit. 383.
  108. Haygood W. Showdown. Knopf; New York. 2015. 5.
  109. Waring Judge J. Colliers. 1950.
  110. Maas P. Serpico. Viking Press; New York. 1973.
  111. Rappe E. The Real Frank Serpico Looks Back. 2010.
  112.  
  113. Robertson L. The Miami Herald. 1D. 1984.
  114. The New York Times. Incompetence in Police. Sept. 14, 1984.
  115. op. cit. p. 228.
  116. Jensen M. NBC Nightly News. 1994.
  117. Bradley Jus J. United States v. Singleton. 109 U.S. 3. Oct. 15, 1883. California Regents v. Bakke. 1978. 117. Pitkin. op. cit. 272.

Indexing